World Engineering Anthropometry Resource


WEAR Lecture Series

Lecture Abstracts and Presenters

WEAR Lecture Series Abstracts

Lecture Title: Predicting Fit with Soft Avatars

Lecture Presenter: Prof. Dinesh K. Pai, Computer Science

Lecture Description:

3D avatars used in the apparel industry are hard. They do not behave like real human bodies and do not change shape in response to the garments. This is a major challenge for use of 3D technologies for predicting fit, especially for close-to-body garments such as intimates, athletic apparel, swimwear, and footwear. I will describe how high quality virtual fit testing can be achieved using VitalFit, a virtual fit testing platform developed by Vital Mechanics. The soft avatar technology was initially developed at UBC, in a multi-year effort to capture not only the 3D shape of a human body but also its physical properties, including elasticity, soft tissue volume, and how the body responds to touch with garments and other objects.  The project has measured more than a hundred human participants, from diverse populations, and created the world's first database of soft tissue properties.  These tissue properties are used in finite element (FEM) models of the human body and its interaction with garments.  In parallel efforts, we are also measuring physical properties of real garments, and realistic tissue movement during dynamic activities. Existing patterns developed in garment CAD systems can now be simulated with soft avatars.  I will present results of this process in creating personalized digital avatars and evaluating the fit of close-to-body garments.

Lecture Title: Virtual Fitting

Lecture Presenter: Prof. Hein Daanen, Sizing Science

Lecture Description:

The percentage of clothing sales using dedicated websites is rapidly increasing to the expense of sales in physical clothing stores. This process is accelerated due to the COVID pandemic. In a physical shop the customer can fit a garment and leave with a fitting garment size. In web shopping, however, the customer has to indicate which size is desired. Due to vanity sizing, absence of body dimension awareness and inconsistency in size indications in garments, the customer often gets clothing by mail that is not fitting. Several companies provide the service to send multiple clothing sizes and offer free returns. This is an expensive and environmental unfriendly solution. Virtual fitting may reduce the number of undesired returns. The customer submits a 3D scan (or a 3d model based on objective or subjective information on body dimensions) to the manufacturer that fits the garment on the virtual body or model to select the correct size. Several software packages offer this capability, such as Lectra, Vidya, Clo3D or Optitex. Fit assessment can be assisted by calculation of the volume between garment and body, visualization of stretch in the garment or visualization of a transparent garment over the body. Batch processing is possible and new developments in dynamic fit evaluation have been started. Currently, however, good scientific research validating the tools and results is still lacking. In the presentation, an overview will be given regarding the current status, mainly based on military research, with a discussion regarding prospects for the civilian market.

Lecture Title: The Power of the Data. New Machine-learnt DHMs

Lecture Presenter: Sandra Alemany

Affiliation: Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia (Spain)

Lecture Description:

The Institute of Biomechanics of Valencia, a research organization focused on 3D anthropometry, biomechanics and human factors has developed Move4D, a high-speed 4D body scanning laboratory. This is a new enabling technology that will accelerate the research on new human body models. The motivation is underpinned by four key elements: 1) a massive data gathering, the quantity of 3D body scans that can be measured with this technology is huge, greater than ever; 2) the possibility to process automatically sequences of 3D scans in movement obtained with the 4D scanner obtaining a collection of body models with corresponding topology and prepared for the application of data-driven models is a relevant milestone to accelerate the development of new applications; 3) this technology can be synchronized with other biometric signals (e.g. movements, muscle activity, thermal maps) enabling the recording of paired data to enrich dynamic digital human models with additional elements of the human body behavior and 4) provides a new methodology to study the human-product interaction. This presentation will review the potential of this technology and the impact on the roadmap of a new generation of digital human models (DHM).

WEAR Lecture Series Presenters

Presenter: Prof. Dinesh K. Pai

Dinesh K. Pai is a Professor of Computer Science at the University of British Columbia, and founder of Vital Mechanics Research - a startup developing high-fidelity soft avatars for apparel fit testing. His current research is focused on data-driven digital human models, frictional contact between soft objects, machine learning for design, and technology for efficient measurement of material properties. His research is multidisciplinary, spanning computer graphics, scientific computing, computational mechanics, artificial intelligence, robotics, biomechanics, and the neural control of movement. He has received many prestigious recognitions, including a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair, the 2020 CHCCS Achievement Award for Computer Graphics, UBC's Killam Research Prize, three NSERC Discovery Accelerator/Supplement Awards, and an international Human Frontier Science Program grant. A dozen of his trainees are now faculty at leading institutions, including Stanford, Toronto and McGill. Dr. Pai has been a Professor at Rutgers University and has held visiting professorships at Carnegie Mellon University's Robotics Institute, New York University's Center for Neural Science, the University of Siena (as Santa Chiara Chair in Cognitive Science), and the Collège de France, Paris (elected Professeur Invité). He received his Ph.D. from Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, and his B.Tech. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras. See https://sensorimotor.cs.ubc.ca/pai/ and https://www.vitalmechanics.com/ for more information.

Presenter: Sandra Alemany

Affiliation: Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia (Spain)


Sandra Alemany, head of the Anthropometry Research Group of the Instituto de Biomecánica de Valencia (IBV). She started working at IBV in 2000 as researcher focused on fitting and anthropometry applied to ergonomic product design. In this position, she was project leader of large-scale anthropometry surveys in Spain using 3D scanning technology. She boosted also the acquisition and exchange of international 3D body scan data obtaining as a result a database of more than 200k 3D body scans in different postures representing different population is Europe, EEUU and Asia, an important asset for ergonomic product design and data driven models. She founded the Anthropometry Research Group at IBV in 2015, a multi-disciplinary team combining knowledge and expertise about anatomy, anthropometry measuring, 3D scanning, 3D body processing, computer vision, statistical analysis, deep learning fitting and product design. These unique combination of expertise enables the team to cover all the anthropometric data value chain from the body capture to the application in product conceptualization and design. She coordinates the research activity and roadmap of the different research lines of this team in collaboration with the marketing team of the Institute. The latest projects that she led is the development of a new 4D body scanner laboratory, a breakthrough technology to for dynamic digital human modeling. At this moment, this development is being commercialized under the brand Move4D. She is member of the World Engineering Anthropometry Resource Association (WEAR), an international group of experts on 3D anthropometrics. Expert advisor on European Standardization Committees of Anthropometry and Size System of Clothing. Co-Chair of the Technical Committee of the IEA (International Ergonomic Association). Member of the Fit Subgroup of the 3D Body Processing committee of the IEEE. Expert reviewer of research projects for the European Commission.

Presenter: Prof. Hein Daanen


  • Full professor in (environmental) exercise physiology, VU University, Amsterdam

  • Director of Sizing Science


  • Data analytics in R - Advanced Statistics, 2020

  • Ph.D. Medicine, VU University Amsterdam, 1997, Thesis: "Central and peripheral control of finger blood flow in the cold"

  • Medical-Biological Sciences Teaching Degree, 1984

  • Post Doctoral Course Computer Science, 1984

  • M.Sc. Human Movement Science, VU University Amsterdam, 1978 - 1984

  • Carolus Borromeus College High School Helmond, 1970 - 1978

  • Johannes Primary school Mierlo, 1964 - 1970

Management training:

  • Senior teaching qualification, 2020

  • Short courses: Project Management Techniques; Result Oriented Coaching; Project Development; Sales Management; Employee Assessment

  • Senior Management Development, Bonfire and TNO management, 2006 and 2007

  • Giving and receiving feedback, Hofkes Frolke Meekel Organisation Psychologists, Oktober, 2006

  • Project management, IPMA, june, 2006

  • Competence-based selection of personnel, Hofkes Frolke Meekel Organisation Psychologists, February 16-17, 2006

  • Management training for talented TNO employees. Vlerick School, 2000


  • 2016 - now Full professor in (environmental) exercise physiology; director of Master education in Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam

  • 2010 - now Director of Sizing Science

  • 2013 - 2016 Professor at the Amsterdam Fashion Institute, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences

  • 2011 - 2016 Principal scientist at TNO

  • 2003 - 2016 Professor in Thermal Physiology (part-time) at the Faculty of Human Movement Science, VU University Amsterdam

  • 2003 - 2008 Head of the department of Human Performance, TNO Human Factors

  • 1998 - 2003 Research coordinator of the Thermal Physiology group; Acting head of the Dept. of Work Environment

  • 1996 Collaborative research at the Computerized Anthropometric Research Laboratories of Wright Patterson Air Force Base (OH, USA)

  • 1995 Collaborative research at DRDC Toronto (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DRDC_Toronto) (Canada)

  • 1992 - 1995 Research coordinator of the Workplace ergonomics group

  • 1990 - 2016 Research Scientist, TNO

  • 1985 - 1990 Research Scientist and manager at the Orthopaedic Laboratory, State University Leiden

  • 1985 - 1986 Teacher in Neurophysiology and Computer Science at the Academy for Physical Therapy in Breda and Leiden

Relevant Professional Affiliations:

  • Member of the scientific committee of the 5th international congress on soldiers' physical performance Quebec City 2020

  • Chair of the 2019 International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics

  • Lead auditor of Textile research group of Saxion University (dec 2016)

  • Chair of NATO Research & Technology group HFM-266 on '3D body scanning and logistics'

  • Member of the editorial board of 'European Journal of Applied Physiology'

  • Member of the board of the International Conference on Environmental Ergonomics

  • Member of the board of the WEAR legal body (2003-2013)

  • President of the Legal Body for the International Ergonomics Association (IEA) 2006 conference in Maastricht

  • Member of the ISO group on (3D) anthropometry

  • Member of the International Scientific Advisory Board for the International Ergonomics Association 2003 conference in Seoul and (IEA) 2006 conference in Maastricht

  • Member of Cluster 4 work group on Physical Protection of NATO Long Term Scientific Study on Chemical and Biological Defence

  • President of the Dutch Ergonomics Association (1999 - 2002)

  • Member of the scientific steering committee for the conference Drowning 2002

  • Member of Work Group 20 of AGARD AMP on 3D anthropometry (1995-1998)

  • Co-founder and Member of the Dutch Association of Exercise Physiology (now: Dutch Association of Human Movement Science)


  • Scientific leader of EU project "Prospie", about intelligent clothing for working in the heat.

  • Project manager of anthropometric surveys for the Royal Netherlands Air force and Navy, and how to use these data for cockpit design and evaluation

  • Author of a biomechanical computer model to calculate the load on human joints

  • Author of European patent 08154613.7 'Method and system for alerting the occurrence of wetness'

  • Project manager of NedScan, a Dutch anthropometric survey, part of the CAESAR project

  • Author of a book on hypnosis and editor in chief of a book on working conditions


  • NATO HFM Panel Excellence Award. 2021.

  • Daanen, H.A.M., Hatcher, K., Havenith, G. Determination of clothing microclimate volume. Environmental Ergonomics X, Fukuoka, Japan. 23-27 September, 2002. Best poster award.

  • Reducing train costs, best computer program of the month, NOS (National Radio and Television). Hobbyscoop, May 1985.

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